Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

Peripheral Arterial Disease: An under-recognized, slow-burning emergency |  Appalachian Regional Healthcare System

Leg pain and calf pain are often mistaken for either bone and joint disease or neurological disease. Most people have referred these symptoms to the elderly’s condition caused by excessive walking. In fact, these symptoms might potentially indicate peripheral artery disease.

What are peripheral arteries? 

Peripheral arteries are blood vessels that supply blood to the entire body except to the heart and brain. Peripheral arteries circulate blood flow to the limbs and extremities such as the arms, hands, legs and organs in abdominal cavity such as stomach and kidney. Peripheral arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to muscles, bones and nervous system thus its function is as crucial as coronary arteries.

What is peripheral artery disease?

Peripheral artery disease is a narrowing of the peripheral arteries, resulting in reduced blood supply to the limbs and extremities, especially the legs. Peripheral artery disease is often caused by atherosclerosis which is fatty deposits (plaques) built on the artery walls. Atherosclerotic plaques reduce blood flow to the limbs and cause symptoms, most notably leg pain when walking. Factors that increase risks of developing peripheral artery disease include:

  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • High blood cholesterol
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • Increasing age

Signs and symptoms of peripheral artery disease

Most common affected area is leg and signs and symptoms include:

  • Painful cramping in the legs or calf muscles after certain activities e.g. walking or climbing stairs (claudication)
  • Leg or foot numbness or weakness. A change in the color of the legs or feet. Coldness in the lower leg or foot.
  • Sores on the feet, heel or legs that do not heal properly. It is usually found in diabetic patients with impaired would healing process. If left untreated, tissue necrosis might develop.

If the condition progresses, pain may occur at rest. Pain may occur in one or both sides of the limbs. If pain is intense, it can disrupt sleep. Hanging legs over the edge of the bed or walking around may temporarily relieve the pain.

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Introducing New Treatment For Life-Threatening Aortic Aneurysm

Introducing New Treatment for Life-threatening Aortic Aneurysm | Bangkok  Heart Hospital

The aorta is the largest blood vessel in the human body. It originates from the left ventricle of the heart and extends down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries. Several arteries extend from the aorta to deliver blood to various regions of the body.

Some medical problems may weaken the artery walls, which can result in the aortic wall bulging outward. This is called “aortic aneurysm”. In the worst case scenario, an aneurysm can burst or rupture. This causes bleeding and often leads to death within minutes to hours.


Usually the wall of the aorta is very elastic and can stretch and shrink back as needed in order to adapt to the blood flow. However, some medical problems, such as high blood pressure and atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), weaken the artery walls. These problems, along with the wear and tear that naturally occurs with aging, can result in a weak aortic wall that bulges outward.

Aortic aneurysm is more common in elderly men.   The risk is increased in patients who have coronary artery disease or peripheral vessel disease. In addition, a family history of aortic aneurysm and tobacco use are risk factors for the development of an aortic aneurysm. Aortic aneurysm can be detected by an ultrasonography.

As noted, the risk factors include old age (men aged between 65-75 years), smoking, hypertension and a family history of aortic aneurysm.

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How to safely drink alcohol

How Much Alcohol Is Safe to Drink?

How to safely drink alcohol

Excessive alcohol drinking increases the risk of developing serious health problems including cardiovascular disease. Ideally, alcohol drinking should be avoided. If not applicable, moderate drink alcohol consumption; 2 drinks a day for men and 1 drink a day for women is recommended.

  • In each week, 2 days must be alcohol-free.
  • In each week, alcohol intake should be limited 7-21 drinks (average per day is up to 3 drinks).
  • 1 drink of wine = 140 cc.
  • 1 drink of beer = 330 cc. (equal to 1 served can)
  • 1 drink of spirit 40 degrees = 40 cc. (one shot)

Besides consuming healthy vegetables and fruits those considerably help to reduce blood pressure and cholesterol level, lifestyle modification also plays a major role. To reduce possible risk of developing heart diseases, it is highly recommended to have healthy diet and sufficient rest as well as appropriate and regular exercise. More importantly, annual health checkups and heart screening are essential in order to detect any abnormalities as soon as possible. Early diagnosis greatly contributes to timely and effective treatments.

Source: The American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations.  (or an equal combination of both)

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Baby’s factor and Complications of premature birth

Genetic diseases > Institut Des Biothérapies

  • Certain genetic diseases or disability

  • Impaired growth in the uterus

Complications of premature birth and Certain genetic

A premature birth occurs before the start of the 37th week of pregnancy. Premature babies, especially who are born very early, often develop complicated medical problems. Birth weight also plays an important role. Complications of prematurity vary, ranging from mild to serious conditions. But the earlier the baby is born, the higher the risk of complications. Complications can be shown both short-term and long-term health problems.

  • Breathing difficulties: A premature baby may exhibit trouble breathing due to an immature respiratory system and impaired gas exchange. Furthermore, if the baby’s lungs do not produce surfactant, a substance that allows the lungs to expand and contract properly, the baby may develop respiratory distress syndrome. Premature babies may also develop other lung disorders.
  • Brain problems: The earlier a baby is born, the greater the risk of bleeding in the brain. In some babies, larger brain bleeding potentially causes permanent brain injury.
  • Blood problems: Premature babies are at higher risk of blood problems such as anemia and newborn jaundice. Anemia is a common condition in which the body does not produce enough red blood cells. Newborn jaundice is described as a yellow discoloration in a baby’s skin and the whites of the eyes caused by excessive bilirubin levels in the bloodstream.
  • Metabolism problems. Abnormal metabolism of premature babies often exhibit an abnormally low level of blood sugar (hypoglycemia) due to premature infants typically have smaller stores of stored glucose and have more difficulty converting their stored glucose into more-usable, active forms of glucose.
  • Vision problems. Premature babies might have some eye disease that affects the retina. When the retina is pulled away by abnormal retinal vessels, it can lead to impaired vision and cause blindness.
  • Heart problems: The most common heart condition that premature babies experience is patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). PDA is a persistent opening between the aorta and pulmonary artery. While this heart defect often closes on its own within the first 24 hours after birth, left untreated it can lead to heart failure as well as other complications.

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10 strength exercises to do at home

Moving more often can help you avoid a range of health conditions, including coronary heart disease (CHD). Regular movement helps control weight and reduce your blood pressure and cholesterol. If you have a condition already, it can help you manage it. As you age, being active helps maintain independence, prevent falls and delay onset of conditions such as osteoporosis.

It also lowers risk of dementia, can improve quality and quantity of sleep, how you look and feel, and ability to cope with stress. The more active you are, the bigger the benefits.

The more active you are, the bigger the benefits

There are simple steps we can all take to gain these benefits. The first is to move more every day; any amount of activity is better than none. Start by being active for at least 10 minutes per day at a moderate intensity. Try walking, dancing, swimming or gardening. If you are progressing well, build up to 150 active minutes a week.

Activities involving strength and balance will help improve mobility. Doing simple activities, like the ones in this article, at least twice a week in addition to your daily physical activity, can help you stay strong and balanced. They can be incorporated into your daily routine. For example, try some knee bends while waiting for the kettle to boil.

Muscle-strengthening activities usually make muscles feel warmer and you may get a ‘shake’ or ‘wobble’ during the activity. The next day, you will feel as if the muscles have been used. Strength activities include climbing stairs, tai chi, heavy housework or gardening.

Balancing activities usually make you concentrate on staying upright. They include dancing, tai chi, bowls and exercise classes that include standing and moving.

1. Front-knee strengthener

Front-knee strengthener illustrationYou can do this activity while sitting watching TV or listening to the radio. Raise your leg straight out in front of you, then lift it another inch, hold for a slow count of three, and then slowly lower it.

Repeat five times with each leg. Build up to 10 times per leg. If you want to test yourself further, try sitting away from the back of the chair, keeping a straight back.

2. Back-knee strengthener

Back-knee strengthener illustrationStand up straight in front of a bench or table. Bend one knee, bringing your foot slowly towards your bottom and hold for a slow count of three. Keep the knee of your bent leg slightly behind the knee of the straight leg. Slowly return to starting position.

Repeat five times with each leg. Build up to 10 times per leg. Both of these knee exercises strengthen the large muscles in your thigh that help you stand up and sit down. Developing these muscles will help with walking and climbing stairs.

3. Sit to stand

Sit to stand illustrationSit on the front third of a chair. Put your feet flat on the floor and then slide them back slightly. Lean forward over your knees, keeping your head and shoulders high, and push up through your heels into a standing position.

Try not to use your arms. Sit back down slowly. Repeat five times, building to 10. This exercise will help you to get in and out of chairs more easily.

4. Knee bends

Knee bendsFacing a bench or table, place your feet shoulder width apart. Squat down about 10cm (4in) by slowly bending your knees. Return to starting position. Keep your back straight and don’t push your knees out beyond your toes.

Again, repeat five times, building up to 10. Hold each squat for longer as you become stronger. Knee bends strengthen muscles in your hips and thighs, improving balance. This will help you climb stairs, bend and walk.

5. Calf raises with support

Calf raises with support illustrationStand tall facing a bench or table with your feet hip-width apart. Slowly and with control, raise your heels off the ground. Hold for a slow count of three, then lower your heels back to the ground.

Repeat five times, building to 10. As your balance improves, try this activity without holding onto the table. This exercise strengthens calf muscles and toe joints, making activities such as reaching high cupboards and hanging out washing easier.

6. Toe raises with support

Toe raises with supportStand tall facing a bench or table with your feet hip width apart. Hold onto the bench and come back onto your heels, raising the front of your feet off the floor. Lower your toes back down. Keep your body as straight as possible throughout.

Repeat five times, building to 10. As your balance improves, try this activity without holding onto the table. This activity strengthens your lower leg muscles, making it easier for you to step backwards.

7. Side hip strengthener

Side hip strengthener illustrationStand side-on to a bench or table. Place the nearest hand on the bench and slowly lift the opposite leg out to the side. Hold for a slow count of three and then return to starting position. Keep your body upright and only move your leg.

Repeat five times for each leg, eventually building to 10. This strengthens hip muscles, helping with stepping up onto kerbs and steps.

8. Sideways walking

Sideways walking illustrationStand up tall with your hands on your hips. Take 10 steps to the right, pause, then take 10 steps to the left.

You can use a wall or railing to support yourself, if necessary. This activity will improve your sideways movements.

9. Toe walking with no support

Toe walking with no supportStand tall and look ahead. Slowly come up onto your toes. Walk 10 steps forward while up on your toes. Lower your heels and turn around. Stand up on your toes again and walk 10 more steps.

You can use a wall or railing to support yourself, if necessary. This activity can improve balance, making tasks such as reaching high shelves easier.

10. Heel walking with no support

Heel walking with no support illustrationStand tall and look ahead. Come back onto your heels (as in activity six). Make sure your body stays straight; do not stick your bottom out. Slowly walk 10 steps on your heels. Lower your toes and turn around. Come back onto your heels and take 10 more steps.

You can use a wall or railing to support yourself, if necessary.

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MAGEC: An Effective Spinal Surgery To Treat Spinal Scoliosis In Children.

Idiopathic Scoliosis | Boston Children's HospitalScoliosis is defined as a sideways curvature of the spine that occurs most often during the growth spurt just before puberty. However, scoliosis can actually happen in all age groups. Several risk factors are involved such as cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy. Particularly in children with spinal stenosis, effective treatment must be urgently provided. If this condition is left untreated, it eventually leads to an increased severity that largely impacts daily life and activities. Not only to enhance the mobility but appropriate treatment also improves patient’s quality of life. The advancements of spinal surgery, MAGEC; a magnetic expansion control system with a growing rod is considered as innovatively effective procedure to treat children with spinal scoliosis.

Spinal Scoliosis In Children

In general, spinal scoliosis has been mostly found in girls rather boys, with a ratio 8:1. Additionally, girls have a much higher risk of the curve worsening and requiring treatments. If spinal scoliosis is left untreated, it eventually shortens heights and impairs self-conscious about appearance. In severe cases, serious complications are heart and lung damages. In addition, the rib cage may press against the lungs and heart, resulting in breathing difficulties and weakness. Fatal conditions such as acute heart failure are possible.

sideways curvature of the spine of Signs And Symptoms

Symptoms of spinal scoliosis may vary depending on disease severity and individual conditions of each patient. In its early stage, symptoms may be absent. Noticeable signs and symptoms include:

  • Walking with imbalance posture
  • Uneven shoulders
  • One shoulder blade that appears more prominent than the other

3D-Spinal Surgery In Children With Spinal Scoliosis

Wearing braces can prevent further progression of the curve. However, this treatment option requires  frequent hospital visits (every 2-3 months) for brace adjustment. In addition, it is strictly recommended to continually wear at least 16 hours per day which might affect daily life and some activities of children. Thus, spinal surgery at proper time when children are suitable candidates for surgery is considered as one of the effective choices to treat spinal scoliosis in which braces might not be necessarily needed.

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Corrective contact lenses

Contact Lenses for Vision Correction - American Academy of Ophthalmology

Wearing contact lenses is an alternative option for people who do not want to wear eyeglasses to improve their vision problems caused by presbyopia. This option may not work properly if there are certain conditions related to eyelids, tear ducts or the surfaces of the eyes such as dry eyes. Several lens types to correct presbyopia are available, including:

  • Bifocal and multifocal contact lenses. Both bifocal and multifocal contact lenses are designed to provide clear vision at all distances for people who have presbyopia. Bifocal contacts lenses have two prescriptions in the same lens whereas multifocal contact lenses have a range of powers (similar to progressive eyeglass lenses) in each lens.

  • Monovision contact lenses. With monovision contacts, a contact lens for distance vision is worn in one eye (usually dominant eye) and a contact lens for close-up vision is worn in the other eye. With modified monovision, a bifocal or multifocal contact lens is worn in one eye and a contact lens set for distance in the other (usually dominant eye). The patients use both eyes for distance and one eye for reading.

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พลังงานแสงอาทิตย์ ประกอบด้วยรังสี 3 ชนิดคือ รังสีอินฟราเรด (IR) 53%, รังสีอุลตร้าไวโอเลต (UV) 3%, แสงสว่าง 44% ความร้อนที่เกิดขึ้นจากแสงอาทิตย์ เกิดจากรังสีอินฟราเรด และแสงสว่างรวมกัน รังสีอินฟราเรด เป็นเพียงส่วนหนึ่งของแสงอาทิตย์เท่านั้น ไม่สามารถเห็นได้ด้วยตาเปล่า แต่รู้สึกได้จากความร้อน

ส่วนการทดสอบการลดปริมาณความร้อน (ซึ่งมีค่า % ลดรังสีอินฟราเรดรวมกับค่า % ลดความร้อนจากแสงสว่าง) ควรวัดจากแสงแดดโดยตรง จะได้ผลที่ถูกต้องกว่า การวัดปริมาณความร้อนจากไฟสปอตไลท์ เนื่องจากแหล่งกำเนิดความร้อนทั้งสองมีส่วนประกอบที่แตกต่างกันอย่างสิ้นเชิง กราฟเปรียบเทียบค่า % การลดความร้อนจากรังสีอินฟราเรด สปอตไลท์และแสงแดดของฟิล์มคุณภาพเยี่ยม

1. สรุปวิธีการพิจารณาค่า % การลดความร้อนก่อนเลือกซื้อฟิล์มกรองแสง คือ ต้องเป็น % การลดความร้อนจากแสงแดดโดยรวมเท่านั้น มิใช่เฉพาะแค่รังสีอินฟาเรด หรือค่าจากแสงสปอตไลท์

2. ค่า % การลดความร้อนต้องเป็นค่าที่ทดสอบตามมาตรฐาน ASHRAE และ AIMCAL มิใช่ค่าที่ผู้ขายจัดพิมพ์ขึ้นมาเอง โดยไม่มีมาตรฐานรับรอง

Appropriate exercise for patients with heart disease


  • Brisk walking – is generally a safe way to exercise for patients with heart condition. It is low impact, requires minimal equipment, can be done at any time of day and can be performed at your own pace. Keep a moderately intense pace. Your heart rate should be 60-70% of maximum heart rate (maximum heart rate = 220 – age (years)). Patients should get 30 minutes of exercise a day, five days a week.
  • Running – has positive influence on the heart and takes less time than walking. Running enables the body to use the oxygen to the maximum and the heart to work more efficiently, pumping more blood with every beat. Moreover, it can also reduce stress and improve sleep.
  • Swimming – improves heart and lung capacity, but is gentle on your joints. It can improve cardiovascular fitness as well as muscle strength. As swimming places less demand on the heart than running and other sports, you will not get too tired.
  • Tai chi – is a slow and gentle exercise and does not leave you breathless, so it is an appropriate exercise for patients with heart conditions. It addresses the key components of fitness – muscle strength, flexibility, and balance. It helps improve circulation and reduce fall risk.

Being active when you have heart disease is important. The most important thing to remember is that the patient must know the limits. It is important that you pay attention to warning signs – chest pain, dizziness, or shortness of breath. Stop what you are doing and consult a doctor right away.

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